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Nami Okawa. Www sexy sania mirza pussy. How to get a lucid sex dream. Xxx Jabarjasti Rep 2018. Birmingham escort male uk. Female genital mutilations is a widespread practice in the 4th most populous nation in the world. Here's why. Unicef says million women and girls living today have undergone female genital mutilation. The perception Removal of clitoris in women females must be circumcised like males, as well as religious belief, social pressure, and encouragement from health workers are behind the rampant practice of female genital mutilation FGM in Indonesia, a new research reveals. Conducted please click for source Hivos Southeast Asia, an organization that focuses on global development, and the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study at the University of Indonesia, the research Removal of clitoris in women that among mothers who have had FGM procedure done to their daughters, About the same percentage of the respondents also said that they believe the practice has a strong religious justification, and that they did it because it is considered a cultural tradition practiced by most of the people they know. It also identified a predominant perception that uncircumcised girls will be alienated because they are considered filthy and will grow up promiscuous and unwanted. Held in January to Aprilthe study involves respondents, half of whom are mothers who had the FGM procedure done to their daughters. The remaining half did not opt for the procedure. A total of In addition to false assumptions regarding the health impacts of FGM, the respondents practice FGM due to religious beliefs Removal of clitoris in women social pressure. Based on their educational backgrounds, the highest number of mothers who circumcised their daughters are high school graduates at At least 9. Dangerous procedure Half of the mothers who have their daughters circumcised believe the procedure involves injuring the tip of the clitoris. About One of the common practice in Indonesia is clitoridectomy, which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris or the fold skin surrounding the clitoris the prepuce. In Gorontalo the procedure involves touching the clitoris with Removal of clitoris in women small knife; in some areas, there is even no touching of the genital involved. Granny latex porn Suck my wifes lovers dick.

Free kerala sex videos. The night of the mutilation, I woke up to pee and the wound was so fresh, I felt a shooting pain going up my spine and down to the soles of my feet.

I bled throughout the night, until it finally Removal of clitoris in women the next day. Read article left us as we were, to live or die. I Removal of clitoris in women lucky, because, in the end, I survived. Some girls hemorrhage to death. Female genital mutilation, or FGM, is performed differently in every country and region. For example, one day, they prepared a meal with red rice—the most nutritious rice grown there, which was really expensive—and fish and something green.

They put it on a tray with a stick in the middle of the food.

Xxx Rubgay Watch Video Phlipino Sex. Gynecologic ultrasonography Hysterosalpingography. Internal medicine. Obstetrics and gynaecology. Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. Radiology Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine Pathology Anatomical pathology Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical immunology Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine. Other specialties. Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex. Genetic counseling Pre-conception counseling Sex education. Men's Women's Vulvovaginal Research Self-report sexual risk behaviors. Abortion Birth spacing Maternal health Obstetrics Options counseling Pregnancy from rape Pregnant patients' rights Prenatal care Teenage pregnancy Preteen pregnancy Unintended pregnancy. Andrology Genitourinary medicine Gynaecology Obstetrics and gynaecology Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Sexual medicine. Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection Clinic. Birth control movement in the United States History of condoms Social hygiene movement Timeline of reproductive rights legislation. Female genital mutilation. Clitoridectomy Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Gishiri cutting Husband stitch Infibulation Keloid scars Pelvic inflammatory disease Rectovaginal fistula Vesicovaginal fistula. Female genital mutilation Activists against female genital mutilation. However, there are no acceptable reasons that justify FGM. It's a harmful practice that isn't required by any religion and there are no religious texts that say it should be done. There are no health benefits of FGM. Girls are sometimes taken abroad for FGM, but they may not be aware that this is the reason for their travel. Girls are more at risk of FGM being carried out during the summer holidays, as this allows more time for them to "heal" before they return to school. Every woman has the right to have sexual health and to feel sexual pleasure for full psychophysical well-being of the person. Research done under women from the MENA region found that Female sexual function FSD in the reproductive age appears to be adversely affected by psychological factors and shortcomings in male sexual function more than anything. These findings point to the possibility that many cases of FSD can be managed with the focus on male partner's ailments and attitudes that are relatively easier to manage. Maturbation can be done for example with ones fingers, soft or hard objects or in the shower with the shower head. In general, they have a strong reliance on and value community affiliation over individualism. The American medical system positively values patient autonomy, at times excluding family members during private discussions. Community members or leaders may advise African immigrants about where and from whom to seek care, as well as the type of problems appropriate to bring to a medical encounter. News of a troublesome encounter with a specific provider or clinic may quickly spread through an entire community. In these small communities, interpreters have significant social influence. Immigrant women often see male providers who are unfamiliar with their culture, and their voices are heard through interpreters. Infibulated women have been offended by physicians who, on first seeing their genitalia, asked if they had been in an accident, or splashed with acid. In our experience, many women, whether excised or infibulated, have no complaints related to their altered genitalia, and do not prefer that special attention be devoted to this issue. These women may not understand why we medicalize circumcision, which they consider a tradition, not a medical procedure. My back hurts, I need a job, and my family to be together again. These are my problems. Although many African women are quite sophisticated, rural and poor women may have little reproductive health education, or experience with gynecologic examinations. A woman may have difficulty answering medical questions if she is unfamiliar with noncircumcised anatomy, or with what she had removed by circumcision. She may fear examinations if she believes a clinician will react negatively to her circumcision. Patients never before exposed to procedures such as pelvic examinations could understandably find these alien as well. Many refugees who arrive in the United States have spent years in refugee camps, and faced war, starvation, rape, torture, and loss of family, homes, and their way of life. Their priorities are obtaining homes, jobs, and food, supporting their family members still abroad, and recovering from the traumas of war and relocation. In two studies of women in Somalia, for example, all stated they would circumcise their daughters, and most preferred infibulation. Washington Post. We offer examples of two common reasons circumcised women seek care, and ways clinicians can work with them, followed by general clinical guidelines:. An year-old infibulated Somali woman came to a refugee clinic to have health forms filled out for English as a second language classes. During the interview, she stated she was not sexually active. An untrained interpreter who was present told the physician not to ask about sex, as women of her culture never discussed it. The clinician explained to the interpreter that the topic was also uncomfortable for many American-born women, and they discussed a sensitive way to proceed. They explained to the patient that if she ever did become sexually active, she would need to take precautions about pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Two weeks later, the woman arrived in clinic with a man she introduced as her boyfriend. She stated that they had decided to marry, but knew that her friends who had been married had been opened by their new husbands and that this caused a lot of pain, bleeding, and other problems. She asked that the clinician open defibulate her and was referred to the gynecology department, where this was performed uneventfully. Case Notes: The clinician educated this woman in a nonthreatening way so she felt comfortable returning for further consultation. The interpreter taught us how to use culturally appropriate language, and the meanings of various Somali terms. A year-old Somali woman was seen with an interpreter. She noted pain in her abdomen, especially when she was menstruating. She was fully veiled, and when she spoke of this, she covered her face with her coat and giggled. Sometimes that causes problems for them, including pain during menstruation. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families. Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': A Reader , Pambazuka Press, , p. Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. See also: Intersex medical interventions and Circumcision. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi , 66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. I bled throughout the night, until it finally stopped the next day. They left us as we were, to live or die. I was lucky, because, in the end, I survived. Some girls hemorrhage to death. Female genital mutilation, or FGM, is performed differently in every country and region. For example, one day, they prepared a meal with red rice—the most nutritious rice grown there, which was really expensive—and fish and something green. They put it on a tray with a stick in the middle of the food. They told my sister and I to eat in a circular motion. I almost puked. I remember another ritual in the middle of the night, with the moon shining down on us. We were naked again, and we were led to something that looked like a coffin with white fabric draped over it..

They told my sister and I to eat Removal of clitoris in women a circular motion. I almost puked. I remember another ritual in the middle of the night, with the moon shining down on us.

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Gonzo Xxxx Watch Video Playful sexy. A perineal region; B close-up of the introitus. The authors are deeply grateful for the ideas and input of Eritrean, Ethiopian, and Somali women and men in the United States who have chosen to remain anonymous; Richard Deyo, Thomas Koepsell, and Lula Hussein for critical review of the manuscript; and Sandy Fraser and Herbert Khosid for their input and use of photographs. J Gen Intern Med. Presented as an oral abstract at the national meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine, May 4—6, Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Copyright by the Society of General Internal Medicine. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. METHODS To explore the issue of ritual genital surgery, we conducted an extensive literature review and compared our clinical and community outreach experience with that of other experienced clinicians in the United States and Canada. Open in a separate window. Figure 3. Case 1: Defibulation Prior to Intercourse An year-old infibulated Somali woman came to a refugee clinic to have health forms filled out for English as a second language classes. Case 2: Table 2 Recommendations for Working with African Communities. Figure 2. Acknowledgments The authors are deeply grateful for the ideas and input of Eritrean, Ethiopian, and Somali women and men in the United States who have chosen to remain anonymous; Richard Deyo, Thomas Koepsell, and Lula Hussein for critical review of the manuscript; and Sandy Fraser and Herbert Khosid for their input and use of photographs. Refugee Arrival Data U. Lowenstein L. Attitudes and attitude differences to female genital mutilation in the Sudan: Soc Sci Med. El Dareer A. Attitudes of Sudanese people to the practice of female circumcision. Int J Epidemiol. Sami I. Female circumcision with special reference to the Sudan. Ann Trop Pediatr. Hosken F. Lexington, Mass: Toubia N. Female circumcision as a public health issue. N Eng J Med. Epidemiology of female circumcision in the Sudan. Trop Doctor. Dirie M, Lindmark G. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Ritual female genital surgery among Bedouin in Israel. Arch Sex Behav. Ritual female genital surgery among Ethiopian Jews. Sheehan E. Victorian clitoridectomy. Med Anthropol News. Wollman L. Female circumcision. Hodgkinson D, Hiat G. Aesthetic vaginal labioplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. Gruenbaum E. The Islamic movement, development, and health education: London, UK: Zed Press; Female genital mutilations is a widespread practice in the 4th most populous nation in the world. Here's why. Unicef says million women and girls living today have undergone female genital mutilation. The perception that females must be circumcised like males, as well as religious belief, social pressure, and encouragement from health workers are behind the rampant practice of female genital mutilation FGM in Indonesia, a new research reveals. Conducted by Hivos Southeast Asia, an organization that focuses on global development, and the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study at the University of Indonesia, the research found that among mothers who have had FGM procedure done to their daughters, About the same percentage of the respondents also said that they believe the practice has a strong religious justification, and that they did it because it is considered a cultural tradition practiced by most of the people they know. It also identified a predominant perception that uncircumcised girls will be alienated because they are considered filthy and will grow up promiscuous and unwanted. Held in January to April , the study involves respondents, half of whom are mothers who had the FGM procedure done to their daughters. The remaining half did not opt for the procedure. A total of In addition to false assumptions regarding the health impacts of FGM, the respondents practice FGM due to religious beliefs and social pressure. Based on their educational backgrounds, the highest number of mothers who circumcised their daughters are high school graduates at At least 9. Dangerous procedure Half of the mothers who have their daughters circumcised believe the procedure involves injuring the tip of the clitoris. About However In infibulated women, some erectile structures fundamental for orgasm have not been excised. Cultural influence can change the perception of pleasure, as well as social acceptance. Most women with FGM believe they cannot have any sexual pleasure anymore. Every woman has the right to have sexual health and to feel sexual pleasure for full psychophysical well-being of the person. Research done under women from the MENA region found that Female sexual function FSD in the reproductive age appears to be adversely affected by psychological factors and shortcomings in male sexual function more than anything. These findings point to the possibility that many cases of FSD can be managed with the focus on male partner's ailments and attitudes that are relatively easier to manage. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure. Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1. The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas. FGM is therefore a global concern. The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities. If the malignancy is present in muscular tissue in the region, it is also removed. In some cases, the surgeon is able to preserve the clitoris though the malignancy may be extensive. The cancerous tissue is removed and the incision is closed. Post operative care may employ the use of suction drainage to allow the deeper tissues to heal toward the surface. Follow up after surgery includes the stripping of the drainage device to prevent blockage. A typical hospital stay can be up to two weeks. The site of the surgery is left unbandaged to allow for frequent examination. In some instances, foot elevation, diuretic medication and compression stockings can reduce the build up of fluid. In a clitoridectomy for intersex infants, the clitoris is often reduced instead of removed. The surgeon cuts the shaft of the elongated phallus and sews the glans and preserved nerves back onto the stump. In a less common surgery called clitoral recession, the surgeon hides the clitoral shaft under a fold of skin so only the glans remains visible. While much feminist scholarship has described clitoridectomy as a practice aimed at controlling women's sexuality, the historic emergence of the practice in ancient European and Middle Eastern cultures appears to have derived from ideas about intersex people and the policing of boundaries between the sexes. In the seventeenth century, anatomists remained divided on whether a clitoris was a normal female organ, with some arguing that only intersex people had one and that, if large enough to be visible, it should always be removed at birth. Peter Lewis Allen writes that Brown's views caused outrage, and he died penniless after being expelled from the Obstetrical Society. Occasionally, in American and English medicine of the nineteenth century, circumcision was done as a cure for insanity. Some believed that mental and emotional disorders were related to female reproductive organs and that removing the clitoris would cure the neurosis. This treatment was discontinued in Aesthetics may determine clitoral norms. A lack of ambiguity of the genitalia is seen as necessary in the assignment of a sex to infants and therefore whether a child's genitalia is normal, but what is ambiguous or normal can vary from person to person. Sexual behavior is another reason for clitoridectomies. Author Sarah Rodriguez stated that the history of medical textbooks has indirectly created accepted ideas about the female body. Medical and gynecological textbooks are also at fault in the way that the clitoris is described in comparison to a male's penis. The importance and originality of a female's clitoris is underscored because it is seen as "a less significant organ, since anatomy texts compared the penis and the clitoris in only one direction. Not all historical examples of clitoral surgeries should be assumed to be clitoredectomy removal of the clitoris..

The practice of female circumcision is not unknown in the West. Clitoridectomy was performed into the s to treat masturbation, insanity, epilepsy, and hysteria.

Pornteen black Watch Video Sex kontak. FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure. Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. Research done under women from the MENA region found that Female sexual function FSD in the reproductive age appears to be adversely affected by psychological factors and shortcomings in male sexual function more than anything. These findings point to the possibility that many cases of FSD can be managed with the focus on male partner's ailments and attitudes that are relatively easier to manage. Maturbation can be done for example with ones fingers, soft or hard objects or in the shower with the shower head. Masturbation behavior appears to be related to a greater sexual repertoire, more sexual fantasies, and greater reported ease in reaching sexual arousal and orgasm. Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex. Genetic counseling Pre-conception counseling Sex education. Men's Women's Vulvovaginal Research Self-report sexual risk behaviors. Abortion Birth spacing Maternal health Obstetrics Options counseling Pregnancy from rape Pregnant patients' rights Prenatal care Teenage pregnancy Preteen pregnancy Unintended pregnancy. Andrology Genitourinary medicine Gynaecology Obstetrics and gynaecology Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Sexual medicine. Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection Clinic. Birth control movement in the United States History of condoms Social hygiene movement Timeline of reproductive rights legislation. Female genital mutilation. Clitoridectomy Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Gishiri cutting Husband stitch Infibulation Keloid scars Pelvic inflammatory disease Rectovaginal fistula Vesicovaginal fistula. Female genital mutilation Activists against female genital mutilation. Wound healing. Angiogenesis Intussusception Vasculogenesis. Chromosomes portal. Retrieved from " https: Gynecological surgery Surgical oncology Surgical removal procedures Female genital modification Plastic surgery Vagina Congenital disorders Pediatric gynecology Chromosomes Urethra disorders Female genital mutilation Ethically disputed medical practices. Namespaces Article Talk. Johanna Debora Imelda, a member of the research team at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study UI, listed some of the tools used in the procedures, from small knives, razor blades to eyebrow scissors. In the report a girl from Bima testified about her experience: It bled for two days, so I was treated with traditional medicine. Then I was told to bathe in the sea. After the circumcision it felt painful when I peed. She bled a lot like a woman in childbirth. Social and cultural Johanna says the practice of FGM is deeply embedded in Indonesian culture, although female circumcision is not mentioned in the Quran. There will be social sanctions to anyone who goes against the practice. The report describes how different societies practice this. In Poliwali Mandar and Sumenep, for instance, women who are not circumcised are labeled p romiscuous and believed to have high sexual drive. During the interview, she stated she was not sexually active. An untrained interpreter who was present told the physician not to ask about sex, as women of her culture never discussed it. The clinician explained to the interpreter that the topic was also uncomfortable for many American-born women, and they discussed a sensitive way to proceed. They explained to the patient that if she ever did become sexually active, she would need to take precautions about pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Two weeks later, the woman arrived in clinic with a man she introduced as her boyfriend. She stated that they had decided to marry, but knew that her friends who had been married had been opened by their new husbands and that this caused a lot of pain, bleeding, and other problems. She asked that the clinician open defibulate her and was referred to the gynecology department, where this was performed uneventfully. Case Notes: The clinician educated this woman in a nonthreatening way so she felt comfortable returning for further consultation. The interpreter taught us how to use culturally appropriate language, and the meanings of various Somali terms. A year-old Somali woman was seen with an interpreter. She noted pain in her abdomen, especially when she was menstruating. She was fully veiled, and when she spoke of this, she covered her face with her coat and giggled. Sometimes that causes problems for them, including pain during menstruation. Were you closed? Two weeks before this visit, she had been seen by another physician who gave her antifungal vaginal suppositories. Although she tried to insert the medication into her narrow introitus borrowing an insulin syringe from a friend for this purpose , she was unable to insert much medicine, and the cream would get stuck and thicken in her introitus. On physical examination, she had been infibulated though her clitoris was palpable beneath the skin and her introitus was only 5 mm wide. Cotton swab examination of the introitus revealed multiple budding yeast with hyphae. She was treated with an oral antifungal agent for the vaginal infection and given a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent for menstrual pain, with complete resolution of her discomfort. A vaginal ultrasound during her menses revealed no hematocolpos. The patient was advised that she could have either defibulation or stretching of her introitus, but she refused the procedures. She was told to return if she had symptoms of urinary or vaginal infections. This physician followed the patient for the next 2 years, during which she had no further infections, and no further menstrual pain. This woman felt uncomfortable telling her first physician that she could not use a vaginal suppository, and was afraid that no other physician would treat her unless she agreed to be defibulated. Although providers may wish that a patient with obstructive complications would agree to defibulation, they cannot make this decision for the patient. Health centers can create or eliminate barriers for minority communities by choosing to address the issues their patients consider most important. We offer recommendations for working with African communities in Table 1 , clinical pearls for treating circumcised women in Table 2 , and sample questions in Table 3. Once clinicians establish trust and dialogue with communities, they may receive requests to perform genital surgeries on children. The physician can explain that to perform these surgeries on minors is illegal in the United States, and is currently considered, by many, to be a form of child abuse. As with all behaviors health workers try to discourage, however, providers should support families, with sensitivity and without sensationalism, or risk a backlash of secrecy and mistrust. Some African men may state they want to stop the practice. The strategy of medicalizing ritual genital surgery and then trying to eradicate it as if it were a disease, without recognizing the larger sociocultural context of which it is but one part, will be unsuccessful. It will continue until societies that practice it decide the practice is damaging to the welfare of women. Only efforts to improve the social and economic status of women, and education from within communities, can alter this practice. Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions". Hayes, Rose Oldfield 17 June A Functional Analysis". American Ethnologist. Horowitz, Carol R. Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January New England Journal of Medicine. Iavazzo, Christos; Sardi, Thalia A. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Ismail, Edna Adan Edna Adan University Hospital. Jackson, Elizabeth F. Studies in Family Planning. Reproductive Health Matters. Archived from the original PDF on 21 September For more than 25 years, I fantasized about killing each and every one of them. All of them. You never really get over female genital mutilation. You just learn to live with it. I was created whole by God, he gave me that part for a reason. I remain complete, but not whole. Something was taken from me. I never confronted my father. But I do know he paid money to have us circumcised—that's how those women made their living. I was 24 when the U. There was a speaker who came to talk about FGM..

Female circumcision is illegal in several African and European countries and in Canada. As of Septemberit will be illegal in the United States to circumcise females under the age of 18 Prohibition of Female Genital Removal of clitoris in women Act of The U.

Congress also mandated the Department of Health and Human Services to educate communities on the health effects of the practice and make recommendations to medical schools for its treatment.

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Immigration and Naturalization Service granted political Removal of clitoris in women to a Togolese woman, recognizing that her likelihood of being circumcised constituted a bona-fide fear of persecution Dugger C.

New York Times. A1, B6—7. There are now public health campaigns in many countries that educate communities about the harms of circumcision with the goal of eradicating the practice. Although health workers may circumcise females using aseptic technique, medically untrained persons usually perform circumcisions without anesthesia in nonmedical settings.

Circumcisers may click to see more skilled in traditional medicine, but their lack of training in surgery, their poor equipment, and the fact that the girl may struggle, all suggest that it is difficult to be precise in an excision. For infibulation, the wound edges are closed with thorns or sutures, and the thighs may be bound together to fuse the labial edges, with a matchstick or twig inserted to ensure a patent vaginal foramen.

My father did not want it done; he begged my mother to stop. Removal of clitoris in women women held me down on the ground. Another woman cut me with a blade. She closed me with thorns. Defibulation, cutting or tearing open Removal of clitoris in women the scarred vaginal tissue, occurs partly when an infibulated woman has intercourse, and more extensively when she gives birth. In many cultures, a husband defibulates his bride after seeing she is a virgin.

A woman may be defibulated with a sharp Removal of clitoris in women if the husband is unable to penetrate, or if he permits defibulation by a midwife or relative. Reinfibulation, most commonly practiced in the Sudan, involves resuturing of the introitus after childbirth or widowhood.

Some sexually active, unmarried women use reinfibulation to create a false appearance of virginity.

Female genital mutilation (FGM)

Clinicians who work with culturally diverse patients often encounter patients who adhere to practices the clinicians do not understand.

As members of noncircumcising cultures, our first response is to wonder why it is performed and perpetuated, and what values it signifies and sustains. We must curb a tendency to view behavior as rational or irrational from a rarified Removal of clitoris in women perspective.

Removal of clitoris in women

Although there is no single cultural explanation for female circumcision, there are several general points to make when attempting to place it in an understandable context. First, until recently in the societies in which it is article source, circumcision has been regarded as a necessary condition of life.

The concept of female and Removal of clitoris in women circumcision, as with many traditions, can be invisible until people are forced to examine it. Why does everyone say it is so terrible and that I should have problems from it? Reasons for deeply rooted traditions are often difficult to articulate, and therefore are easily discounted. Second, although many treat ritual female genital surgery as a singular process affecting millions of women, it is not a homogeneous practice.

The types of surgeries and rationales behind them are as diverse as the people that practice them. Third, although efforts to elevate the role of women in African society will most likely include a discussion of ritual genital surgery, women may not consider it the central issue of inequality. Africans must Removal of clitoris in women the timing and framing of social change in Africa within the context of their families and neighborhoods.

Finally, although these practices probably have their origins in patriarchal authority, women are responsible Removal of clitoris in women their day-to-day perpetuation. Where we come from, it is the natural practice of our people. More than half of circumcised women may experience medical complications, but there are few accurate assessments Removal of clitoris in women the frequency and severity of complications.

There are no assessments of the complications of less severe forms, such as excision of the clitoral foreskin. Western providers will most likely encounter delayed complications of infibulation, 19 whose severity usually correlates with the extent of introital obstruction or scarring. Infibulated women can have keloids, adhesions, and dermoid cysts that obstruct the introitus, or further narrow the vaginal opening.

An obstructive vulval skin diaphragm leads to a poor, slow urinary stream, dribbling, incontinence, and vaginal calculi, 20 and maintains a blind pouch around the urethra and vagina, resulting in frequent vaginal and urinary tract infections. Talk to your GP or another healthcare professional if you're experiencing Removal of clitoris in women or mental health problems that may be a result of FGM.

Help and support is available. However, Removal of clitoris in women can help many problems caused by FGM. Deinfibulation should be carried out before getting pregnant, if possible.

African Sexyvideos Watch Video Granny pornn. A clitoridectomy is often done to remove malignancy or necrosis of the clitoris. This is sometimes done along with a radical complete vulvectomy. Surgery may also become necessary due to therapeutic radiation treatments to the pelvic area. Removal of the clitoris may be due to malignancy or trauma. Female infants born with a 46,XX genotype but have genitalia affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia and are treated surgically with vaginoplasty that often reduces the size of the clitoris without its total removal. The atypical size of the clitoris is due to an endocrine imbalance in utero. Treatments on children raise human rights concerns. Clitoridectomy surgical techniques are used to remove an invasive malignancy that extends to the clitoris. Standard surgical procedures are followed in these cases. This includes evaluation and biopsy. Other factors that will affect the technique selected are age, other existing medical conditions, and obesity. Other considerations are the probability of extended hospital care and the development of infection at the surgical site. The extent of the surgical site extends one to two centimeters beyond the boundaries of malignancy. Superficial lymph nodes may also need to be removed. If the malignancy is present in muscular tissue in the region, it is also removed. In some cases, the surgeon is able to preserve the clitoris though the malignancy may be extensive. The cancerous tissue is removed and the incision is closed. Knives, razors Dr. Johanna Debora Imelda, a member of the research team at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study UI, listed some of the tools used in the procedures, from small knives, razor blades to eyebrow scissors. In the report a girl from Bima testified about her experience: It bled for two days, so I was treated with traditional medicine. Then I was told to bathe in the sea. After the circumcision it felt painful when I peed. She bled a lot like a woman in childbirth. Social and cultural Johanna says the practice of FGM is deeply embedded in Indonesian culture, although female circumcision is not mentioned in the Quran. There will be social sanctions to anyone who goes against the practice. The report describes how different societies practice this. How individuals experience orgasm varies. For many women, orgasm occurs with clitoral stimulation. There are more nerve endings in the clitoris than in the entire penis and the clitoris's sole function is for pleasure. Removal of the clitoris would eliminate the chance of having this particular type of orgasm. Some women experience orgasms that may be a result of stimulation of the G-Spot, located on the front vaginal wall. Not every woman experiences G-spot orgasms and, depending on the degree of cutting, it is possible a woman would not experience any pleasure or orgasm during sex. Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1. The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas. FGM is therefore a global concern. Victorian clitoridectomy. Med Anthropol News. Wollman L. Female circumcision. Hodgkinson D, Hiat G. Aesthetic vaginal labioplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. Gruenbaum E. The Islamic movement, development, and health education: London, UK: Zed Press; Woman, Why Do You Weep? Circumcision and Its Consequences. Winkel E. A Muslim perspective on female circumcision. Women Health. Eur J Gynecol Obstet. Verzin J. Sequelae of female circumcision. Aziz F. Gynecologic and obstetric complications of female circumcision. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Agugua N, Egwato V. Female circumcision: J Trop Pediatr. DeSilva S. Obstetric sequelae of female circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Lalonde A. Clinical management of female genital mutilation must be handled with understanding, compassion. Can Med Assoc J. Inhorn M, Buss K. Infertility, infection and iatrogenesis in Egypt: Med Anthropol. Lightfoot-Klein H. It can be done in pregnancy or labour if necessary, but ideally should be done before the last two months of pregnancy. The surgery involves making a cut incision to open the scar tissue over the entrance to the vagina. All women and girls have the right to control what happens to their bodies and the right to say no to FGM. UK website. FGM is carried out for various cultural, religious and social reasons within families and communities in the mistaken belief that it will benefit the girl in some way for example, as a preparation for marriage or to preserve her virginity. How to Abort at home with Pills misoprostol, cytotec? Safe birth with Misoprostol Questions and Answers Sexual health and abortion services worldwide Safe Abortion Hotlines Warning, fake abortion pills for sale online!! How can I get Misoprostol? Audio files safe abortion hotlines Safe abortion:.

It can be done in pregnancy or labour if necessary, but ideally should be done before the last two months of pregnancy. The surgery involves making a cut incision to open the scar tissue over the entrance to the vagina. Other factors that will affect the technique selected are age, other existing medical conditions, and obesity. Other considerations are Removal of clitoris in women probability of extended hospital Removal of clitoris in women and the development of infection at the surgical site.

The extent of the surgical site extends one to two centimeters beyond the boundaries of malignancy. Superficial lymph nodes may also need to be removed. If the malignancy is present in muscular continue reading in the region, it is also removed. In some cases, the surgeon is able to click the clitoris though the malignancy may be extensive. The cancerous tissue is removed and the incision is closed.

Post operative Removal of clitoris in women may employ the use Removal of clitoris in women suction drainage to allow the deeper tissues to heal toward the surface.

Follow up after surgery includes the stripping of the drainage device to prevent blockage. A typical hospital stay can be up to two weeks.

The site of the surgery is left unbandaged to allow for frequent examination. In some instances, foot elevation, diuretic medication and compression stockings can reduce the build up of fluid. In a clitoridectomy for intersex infants, the clitoris is often reduced instead of removed. The surgeon cuts the shaft of the elongated phallus and sews the glans and preserved nerves back onto the stump.

In a less common surgery called clitoral recession, the surgeon hides the clitoral shaft under a fold of skin so only the glans remains visible. While much feminist scholarship has described clitoridectomy as a practice aimed at controlling women's sexuality, the historic emergence of the practice in ancient European and Middle Eastern cultures appears to have derived from ideas about intersex people and the policing of boundaries between the sexes.

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In the seventeenth century, anatomists remained divided on whether a clitoris was a normal female organ, with some arguing that only intersex people had one and that, if large enough to be visible, it should Removal of clitoris in women be removed at birth. Peter Lewis Allen writes that Brown's views caused outrage, and he died penniless after being Removal of clitoris in women from the Obstetrical Society.

Occasionally, in American and English medicine of the nineteenth century, circumcision was done as a cure for insanity. Some believed that mental and emotional disorders were related to female reproductive organs and that removing the clitoris would cure the neurosis.

Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Cum dumpster pussy Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Removal of clitoris in women. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions".

Hayes, Rose Oldfield 17 June A Functional Analysis". American Ethnologist. Horowitz, Carol R. Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January New England Journal of Medicine. Iavazzo, Christos; Sardi, Thalia A. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Ismail, Edna Adan Removal of clitoris in women Adan University Hospital. Jackson, Elizabeth F. Studies in Family Planning. Reproductive Health Matters.

Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Jones, Wanda K. Who is at risk in the U. Public Health Reports Washington, D. BMJ Global Health.

Kelly, Elizabeth; Hillard, Paula J. Adams October Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Khazan, Olga 8 April The Atlantic.

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Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny The Journal of Sex Research. Knight, Mary June Some remarks on the practice of female and male circumcision in Graeco-Roman Egypt". A Comparative Law Perspective". International Law Research. Kouba, Leonard J. An Overview". African Studies Review. Mandara, Mairo Usman March International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Mackie, Gerry December American Sociological Review. Mackie, Gerry June A Harmless Practice?

Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Murray, Jocelyn Journal of Religion in Africa. Nour, Nawal M. A Persisting Practice". Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Okeke, T. January Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. O'Rourke, Paul F. Rasheed, Salah M. Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M. Rodriguez, Sarah July American medicine and female sexuality click the late nineteenth century".

Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Rushwan, Hamid September A tragedy for women's reproductive health".

African Journal of Urology. Sheehan, E. August Isaac Baker Brown and his Removal of clitoris in women operative procedure".

Medical Anthropology Newsletter. Shell-Duncan, Bettina June Female Genital Cutting and the Politics of Intervention". American Anthropologist. Silverman, Eric K.

Milfs fucking sons. Female genital mutilations is a widespread practice in the 4th most populous nation in the world. Here's why. Unicef says million women just click for source girls living today have undergone female genital mutilation. The perception that females must be circumcised like males, as well as religious belief, social pressure, and encouragement from health workers are behind the rampant practice of female genital mutilation FGM in Indonesia, a new research reveals.

Conducted by Hivos Southeast Asia, an organization that focuses on global development, and the Removal of clitoris in women for Gender and Sexuality Study at the University of Indonesia, the research found that among mothers who have had FGM procedure done to their daughters, About the same percentage of the respondents also said that they believe the practice has a strong Removal of clitoris in women justification, and that they did it because it is Removal of clitoris in women a cultural tradition practiced by most Removal of clitoris in women the people they know.

It also identified a predominant perception that uncircumcised girls will be alienated because they are considered filthy and will grow up promiscuous and unwanted. Held in January Removal of clitoris in women Aprilthe study involves respondents, half of whom are mothers who had the FGM procedure done to their daughters. The remaining half did not opt for the procedure. A total of In addition to false assumptions regarding the health impacts of FGM, the respondents practice FGM due to religious beliefs and social pressure.

Based on their educational backgrounds, the highest number of mothers who circumcised their daughters are high school graduates at At least 9. Dangerous procedure Half of the mothers who have their daughters circumcised believe the Removal of clitoris in women involves injuring the tip of the clitoris.

About One of the common practice in Indonesia is clitoridectomy, which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris or the fold skin surrounding the clitoris the prepuce.

Why the cutting of a woman's clitoris is so prevalent in Indonesia

In Gorontalo the procedure involves touching the clitoris with a small knife; in some areas, there is even no touching of the genital involved. More than half of the FGM procedures is conducted by dukun bayi baby shaman and a Removal of clitoris in women is done by dukun sunat circumcision shamanwhile 17 percent of midwives and 0.

The danger lies in the fact that the tools used for the procedures are not always hygienic. Knives, razors Dr. Johanna Debora Imelda, a member of the research team at the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study UI, listed some of the tools used in the procedures, from small knives, razor blades to eyebrow scissors.

In the report a girl from Bima testified about her experience: It bled for two days, so I was treated Removal of clitoris in women traditional medicine. Then I was told to bathe in the sea. After the circumcision it felt painful when I peed. She bled a lot like a woman in childbirth. Social and cultural Johanna says the practice of FGM is deeply embedded in Indonesian culture, although female circumcision is not mentioned in the Quran.

There will be social sanctions to visit web page who goes against the practice. The report describes how different societies practice this. In Poliwali Mandar and Sumenep, for instance, women who are not circumcised are click here p romiscuous and believed to have high sexual drive. They also believe that women Removal of clitoris in women are not circumcised run the risk of turning into sex workers.

In Ambon, uncircumcised women are not allowed to enter the mosque, pray or read the Quran. In Bima no man would want to marry an uncircumcised woman. Riri Khariroh, a commissioner at the National Commission on Violence against Women Komnas Perempuansaid during the report launch that eliminating the practice of FGM in Indonesia will require redefining the term to shed its association Removal of clitoris in women religion.

Sext panther Watch Video Sexyfuck hard. Circumcised women have an increased risk of infertility, in part due to chronic pelvic infections and obstruction to intercourse. There are no carefully controlled studies of the effect of female circumcision on sexual functioning. Most clinicians, however, assume a woman will have diminished sexual sensation if her clitoris is removed. Clinicians should note that some circumcised women report having satisfying sexual relations: Women may fear the pain of defibulation, or the possible discovery by their husbands that there was an accidental disruption of the circumcision, which could result in social humiliation and familial disgrace. Dyspareunia may occur from difficult penetration, scarring, and mental trauma. Anxiety and phobic behavior may occur, as some women psychologically re-experience the pain and trauma of the procedure and its complications. Obstetric complications are common. Prolonged pressure on the perineum during delivery can lead to avascular necrosis and atrophy of genital tissue, rectovaginal and vesiculovaginal fistulae. When American clinicians are first exposed to circumcision, they may respond with shock, disbelief, psychological and even physical distress. Uncertainty and discomfort may cause a provider to avoid the issue and their patient. Clinicians can learn to separate their feelings about the practice from their obligation to care in a nurturing way for circumcised women. Otherwise, judgmental attitudes may offend patients who probably had no say in the decision to alter their genitalia , inhibit further medical care, and impair the trust and rapport necessary to discuss health issues and the potential harms of continuing the practice. African immigrants and refugees in the United States experience a marked discrepancy between their traditional culture and their new culture. In general, they have a strong reliance on and value community affiliation over individualism. The American medical system positively values patient autonomy, at times excluding family members during private discussions. Community members or leaders may advise African immigrants about where and from whom to seek care, as well as the type of problems appropriate to bring to a medical encounter. News of a troublesome encounter with a specific provider or clinic may quickly spread through an entire community. In these small communities, interpreters have significant social influence. Immigrant women often see male providers who are unfamiliar with their culture, and their voices are heard through interpreters. Infibulated women have been offended by physicians who, on first seeing their genitalia, asked if they had been in an accident, or splashed with acid. In our experience, many women, whether excised or infibulated, have no complaints related to their altered genitalia, and do not prefer that special attention be devoted to this issue. These women may not understand why we medicalize circumcision, which they consider a tradition, not a medical procedure. My back hurts, I need a job, and my family to be together again. These are my problems. Although many African women are quite sophisticated, rural and poor women may have little reproductive health education, or experience with gynecologic examinations. A woman may have difficulty answering medical questions if she is unfamiliar with noncircumcised anatomy, or with what she had removed by circumcision. She may fear examinations if she believes a clinician will react negatively to her circumcision. Patients never before exposed to procedures such as pelvic examinations could understandably find these alien as well. Many refugees who arrive in the United States have spent years in refugee camps, and faced war, starvation, rape, torture, and loss of family, homes, and their way of life. Their priorities are obtaining homes, jobs, and food, supporting their family members still abroad, and recovering from the traumas of war and relocation. In two studies of women in Somalia, for example, all stated they would circumcise their daughters, and most preferred infibulation. Washington Post. We offer examples of two common reasons circumcised women seek care, and ways clinicians can work with them, followed by general clinical guidelines:. An year-old infibulated Somali woman came to a refugee clinic to have health forms filled out for English as a second language classes. It can also cause long-term problems with sex, childbirth and mental health. However, in some countries it may be done by a medical professional. FGM often happens against a girl's will without her consent and girls may have to be forcibly restrained. FGM can make it difficult and painful to have sex. It can also result in reduced sexual desire and a lack of pleasurable sensation. Then both sides of the vulva are scraped raw and stitched up. Submit a new response. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Leave this field blank. Women hold up their hands in the universally popular 'peace' sign, during a session on the dangers of FGM, in Alexandria, Egypt. The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. The speaker gave me the floor, and I talked about what happened to me. I felt liberated. So I kept speaking. Over the years, I visited other universities, appeared on women's rights panels, and told my story during radio interviews. Then, in , I published my book, Distant Sunrise: The Strength in Her Pain to Forgive , which discusses my experience with female genital mutilation and rape, and how I learned to overcome these tragedies to become a victor instead of a victim. But I do. And I will. Cole is an female genital mutilation activist and speaker who lives in Germantown, Maryland. She is the author of Distant Sunrise: The Strength in Her Pain to Forgive. Gynecologic ultrasonography Hysterosalpingography. Internal medicine. Obstetrics and gynaecology. Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. Radiology Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine Pathology Anatomical pathology Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical immunology Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine. Other specialties. Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex. Genetic counseling Pre-conception counseling Sex education. Men's Women's Vulvovaginal Research Self-report sexual risk behaviors. Abortion Birth spacing Maternal health Obstetrics Options counseling Pregnancy from rape Pregnant patients' rights Prenatal care Teenage pregnancy Preteen pregnancy Unintended pregnancy. Andrology Genitourinary medicine Gynaecology Obstetrics and gynaecology Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Sexual medicine. Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection Clinic. Birth control movement in the United States History of condoms Social hygiene movement Timeline of reproductive rights legislation. Female genital mutilation. Clitoridectomy Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Gishiri cutting Husband stitch Infibulation Keloid scars Pelvic inflammatory disease Rectovaginal fistula Vesicovaginal fistula. Female genital mutilation Activists against female genital mutilation. Unicef says million women and girls living today have undergone female genital mutilation. The perception that females must be circumcised like males, as well as religious belief, social pressure, and encouragement from health workers are behind the rampant practice of female genital mutilation FGM in Indonesia, a new research reveals. Conducted by Hivos Southeast Asia, an organization that focuses on global development, and the Center for Gender and Sexuality Study at the University of Indonesia, the research found that among mothers who have had FGM procedure done to their daughters, About the same percentage of the respondents also said that they believe the practice has a strong religious justification, and that they did it because it is considered a cultural tradition practiced by most of the people they know. It also identified a predominant perception that uncircumcised girls will be alienated because they are considered filthy and will grow up promiscuous and unwanted. Held in January to April , the study involves respondents, half of whom are mothers who had the FGM procedure done to their daughters. The remaining half did not opt for the procedure. A total of In addition to false assumptions regarding the health impacts of FGM, the respondents practice FGM due to religious beliefs and social pressure. Based on their educational backgrounds, the highest number of mothers who circumcised their daughters are high school graduates at .

This article was first published on Magdalene. This website encourages disabled women to reclaim their sexual rights. She enjoys writing fiction, binge-watching TV series and reading Indonesian literature.

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Iesbean Sex Watch Video Wwwdatkam Xxx2. We review the practice, cultural significance and medical complications of female circumcision, and offer sensitive clinical guidelines, illustrated by case examples, for caring for currently circumcised women. To explore the issue of ritual genital surgery, we conducted an extensive literature review and compared our clinical and community outreach experience with that of other experienced clinicians in the United States and Canada. All the Somali women, aged 18 to 68 years, were infibulated. The Ethiopian and Eritrean women, aged 30 to 52 years, had circumcisions ranging from removal of the clitoral foreskin to infibulation. The men ranged in age from 18 to The men and women were interviewed when they came for routine medical visits to a refugee clinic, or when the interviewer visited them in their homes. Trained medical interpreters assisted all non-English-speaking patients. Gender-matched interpretation was provided, and interpretation was phrase-by-phrase with time allowed for cultural annotation. We elicited feedback on the clinical guidelines from U. To explore the representativeness of our findings and the cultural appropriateness of our guidelines, we also reviewed our findings with 20 East African women including 5 of the Somali women initially interviewed living in the United States, with varying degrees of acculturation. Although they agreed with the majority of points, they had passionate and polar ideas about whether clinicians should support circumcised women without judgment, or use their social authority to put an end to this practice. The powerful, visceral responses this topic provokes underscore how difficult this area is for clinicians to negotiate. Other women do not consider their bodies mutilated and find the former term judgmental and inflammatory. There are many forms of circumcision, broadly grouped as excision and infibulation, distinguished by whether labial edges are fused after the genitalia are incised Figure 1 and Figure 2. Excision entails cutting or removing part or all of the clitoris with or without the labia minora and majora. Some women have only the clitoral prepuce removed. Infibulation radical circumcision is excision accompanied by suturing closed the introitus leaving a small opening for passage of urine and menstrual blood. Local customs dictate the timing and form of circumcision chosen. Females are usually circumcised between birth and 8 years of age, although occasionally up until the birth of their first child. In two studies women preferred more severe forms of circumcision than did men 2 , 3 and in one study, educated and urbanized females tended to have less severe forms. There are signs of clitoral excision from the sixteenth century BCE. There are more than million circumcised females worldwide. Estimated prevalence of female circumcision in Africa, by country. The practice of female circumcision is not unknown in the West. Clitoridectomy was performed into the s to treat masturbation, insanity, epilepsy, and hysteria. Female circumcision is illegal in several African and European countries and in Canada. As of September , it will be illegal in the United States to circumcise females under the age of 18 Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of The U. Congress also mandated the Department of Health and Human Services to educate communities on the health effects of the practice and make recommendations to medical schools for its treatment. Immigration and Naturalization Service granted political asylum to a Togolese woman, recognizing that her likelihood of being circumcised constituted a bona-fide fear of persecution Dugger C. New York Times. A1, B6—7. There are now public health campaigns in many countries that educate communities about the harms of circumcision with the goal of eradicating the practice. Although health workers may circumcise females using aseptic technique, medically untrained persons usually perform circumcisions without anesthesia in nonmedical settings. Circumcisers may be skilled in traditional medicine, but their lack of training in surgery, their poor equipment, and the fact that the girl may struggle, all suggest that it is difficult to be precise in an excision. For infibulation, the wound edges are closed with thorns or sutures, and the thighs may be bound together to fuse the labial edges, with a matchstick or twig inserted to ensure a patent vaginal foramen. My father did not want it done; he begged my mother to stop. Six women held me down on the ground. Another woman cut me with a blade. She closed me with thorns. Defibulation, cutting or tearing open of the scarred vaginal tissue, occurs partly when an infibulated woman has intercourse, and more extensively when she gives birth. In many cultures, a husband defibulates his bride after seeing she is a virgin. A woman may be defibulated with a sharp instrument if the husband is unable to penetrate, or if he permits defibulation by a midwife or relative. Reinfibulation, most commonly practiced in the Sudan, involves resuturing of the introitus after childbirth or widowhood. Some sexually active, unmarried women use reinfibulation to create a false appearance of virginity. Clinicians who work with culturally diverse patients often encounter patients who adhere to practices the clinicians do not understand. As members of noncircumcising cultures, our first response is to wonder why it is performed and perpetuated, and what values it signifies and sustains. We must curb a tendency to view behavior as rational or irrational from a rarified clinical perspective. Although there is no single cultural explanation for female circumcision, there are several general points to make when attempting to place it in an understandable context. First, until recently in the societies in which it is practiced, circumcision has been regarded as a necessary condition of life. Marion Sims followed Brown's work and in slit the neck of a woman's uterus and amputated her clitoris, "for the relief of the nervous or hysterical condition as recommended by Baker Brown". Later in the 19th century, A. Bloch, a surgeon in New Orleans, removed the clitoris of a two-year-old girl who was reportedly masturbating. From until , he performed "love surgery" by cutting women's pubococcygeus muscle , repositioning the vagina and urethra, and removing the clitoral hood, thereby making their genital area more appropriate, in his view, for intercourse in the missionary position. Little knives in their sheaths That they may fight with the church, The time has come. Elders of the church When Kenyatta comes You will be given women's clothes And you will have to cook him his food. An important ethnic marker, the practice was known by the Kikuyu , the country's main ethnic group, as irua for both girls and boys. It involved excision Type II for girls and removal of the foreskin for boys. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. Jomo Kenyatta , general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association and later Kenya's first prime minister, wrote in that, for the Kikuyu, the institution of FGM was the " conditio sine qua non of the whole teaching of tribal law, religion and morality". No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised. A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation. Her age and place within tribal history was traced to that day, and the group of girls with whom she was cut was named according to current events, an oral tradition that allowed the Kikuyu to track people and events going back hundreds of years. The CSM announced that Africans practising it would be excommunicated, which resulted in hundreds leaving or being expelled. In the Kenya Missionary Council began referring to FGM as the "sexual mutilation of women", rather than circumcision, and a person's stance toward the practice became a test of loyalty, either to the Christian churches or to the Kikuyu Central Association. Edward Grigg , the governor of Kenya , told the British Colonial Office that the killer, who was never identified, had tried to circumcise her. Over the next three years, thousands of girls cut each other's genitals with razor blades as a symbol of defiance. The movement came to be known as Ngaitana "I will circumcise myself" , because to avoid naming their friends the girls said they had cut themselves. Historian Lynn Thomas described the episode as significant in the history of FGM because it made clear that its victims were also its perpetrators. Scottish missionaries require Kikuyu Christians to take an oath against FGM; most leave to form their own churches. Late s: Egypt bans infibulation in state-run hospitals; allows partial clitoridectomy if parents request it. Saadawi's The Naked Face of Women describes her own circumcision. United Nations International Women's Year. Fran Hosken publishes The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , the first to estimate global figures. Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem call it "female genital mutilation" in Ms magazine. French Association of Anthropologists publishes statement that "a certain feminism resuscitates today the moralistic arrogance of yesterday's colonialism. Circumcision and its Consequences. Circumcision and Infibulation of Women in Africa. Infibulation was banned there in , but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. Women in the Arab World , which described her own clitoridectomy when she was six years old:. I did not know what they had cut off from my body, and I did not try to find out. I just wept, and called out to my mother for help. But the worst shock of all was when I looked around and found her standing by my side. Yes, it was her, I could not be mistaken, in flesh and blood, right in the midst of these strangers, talking to them and smiling at them, as though they had not participated in slaughtering her daughter just a few moments ago. In , Rose Oldfield Hayes, an American social scientist, became the first female academic to publish a detailed account of FGM, aided by her ability to discuss it directly with women in Sudan. Her article in American Ethnologist called it "female genital mutilation", rather than female circumcision, and brought it to wider academic attention. Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , [15] the first to offer global figures. She estimated that ,, women in 20 African countries had experienced FGM. The conference listed FGM as a form of violence against women , marking it as a human-rights violation, rather than a medical issue. Immigration spread the practice to Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, all of which outlawed it entirely or restricted it to consenting adults. In the United States an estimated , women and girls had experienced FGM or were at risk as of Canada recognized FGM as a form of persecution in July , when it granted refugee status to Khadra Hassan Farah, who had fled Somalia to avoid her daughter being cut. Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures. According to Colette Gallard, a family-planning counsellor, when FGM was first encountered in France, the reaction was that Westerners ought not to intervene. It took the deaths of two girls in , one of them three months old, for that attitude to change. Around , women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of Both men were acquitted in Anthropologists have accused FGM eradicationists of cultural colonialism , and have been criticized in turn for their moral relativism and failure to defend the idea of universal human rights. Africans who object to the tone of FGM opposition risk appearing to defend the practice. The feminist theorist Obioma Nnaemeka , herself strongly opposed to FGM, argued in that renaming the practice female genital mutilation had introduced "a subtext of barbaric African and Muslim cultures and the West's relevance even indispensability in purging [it]". African feminists "take strong exception to the imperialist, racist and dehumanising infantilization of African women", she wrote in Examples include images of women's vaginas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure. The debate has highlighted a tension between anthropology and feminism, with the former's focus on tolerance and the latter's on equal rights for women. According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position in anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West. Cosmetic procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction do fall within the WHO's definition of FGM, which aims to avoid loopholes, but the WHO notes that these elective practices are generally not regarded as FGM. Sweden, for example, has banned operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other permanent change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation". The philosopher Martha Nussbaum argues that a key concern with FGM is that it is mostly conducted on children using physical force. The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape. Several commentators maintain that children's rights are violated not only by FGM but also by the genital alteration of intersex children, who are born with anomalies that physicians choose to correct. Globally about 30 percent of males over 15 are circumcised; of these, about two-thirds are Muslim. WHO However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet, , but this form appears to be relatively rare Satti et al. Almost all known forms of female genital mutilation that remove tissue from the clitoris also cut all or part of the clitoral glans itself. Some are doing so for the first time, defying the sect's historic secrecy about cutting and taking a risk that they or relatives will be ostracized. Book XVI, chapter 4 , Cantera, Angel L. The Guardian , citing Anantnarayan, Lakshmi et al. Esther K. Hicks, Infibulation: Donaldson James, Susan 13 December ABC News. State University of New York Press, , ff. Gregorio, I. Freedman, Andrew L. May Beyond Benefits and Risks". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , External images. Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Downward trend. Percentage of 15—49 group who have undergone FGM in 29 countries for which figures were available in [3]. Percentage of 0—14 group who have undergone FGM in 21 countries for which figures were available in [3]. Kenyan FGM ceremony. Religious views on female genital mutilation. Spell Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Egyptian Doctors' Society call for ban. Sudan, under Anglo-Egyptian control , bans infibulation; the law is barely enforced. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families. Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': For many women, orgasm occurs with clitoral stimulation. There are more nerve endings in the clitoris than in the entire penis and the clitoris's sole function is for pleasure. Removal of the clitoris would eliminate the chance of having this particular type of orgasm. Some women experience orgasms that may be a result of stimulation of the G-Spot, located on the front vaginal wall. Not every woman experiences G-spot orgasms and, depending on the degree of cutting, it is possible a woman would not experience any pleasure or orgasm during sex. In addition to lack of sensation or physical pain due to cutting, an person may experience distress or anxiety about having sex because of trauma or fear of pain. There are other people who report being able to orgasm from general vaginal stimulation not G-Spot-specific , labial stimulation, nipple stimulation, and from anal intercourse. A great deal of orgasm is related to our imaginations and our thoughts, as well. Something was taken from me. I never confronted my father. But I do know he paid money to have us circumcised—that's how those women made their living. I was 24 when the U. There was a speaker who came to talk about FGM. I registered and was happy I did. I raised my hand and told the class that I was a survivor. The speaker gave me the floor, and I talked about what happened to me. I felt liberated. So I kept speaking. Over the years, I visited other universities, appeared on women's rights panels, and told my story during radio interviews. Then, in , I published my book, Distant Sunrise: The Strength in Her Pain to Forgive , which discusses my experience with female genital mutilation and rape, and how I learned to overcome these tragedies to become a victor instead of a victim. But I do. And I will. Cole is an female genital mutilation activist and speaker who lives in Germantown, Maryland. It's a harmful practice that isn't required by any religion and there are no religious texts that say it should be done. There are no health benefits of FGM. Girls are sometimes taken abroad for FGM, but they may not be aware that this is the reason for their travel. Girls are more at risk of FGM being carried out during the summer holidays, as this allows more time for them to "heal" before they return to school. Girls who were born in the UK or are resident here but whose families originate from an FGM practising community are at greater risk of FGM happening to them. Anyone who performs FGM can face up to 14 years in prison. The summer holidays are when many young girls are taken abroad, often to their family's birth country, to have FGM performed..

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Trump seethes in foul-mouthed tirade against Mueller report U. House subpoenas unredacted Mueller report U. Trump slams 'fabricated' testimony Removal of clitoris in women Mueller report U. Malaysia revives massive China-backed project Asia Pacific. View more stories. Ayunda Nurvitasari. We ask, we probe, we explain.

Naked bbobs Watch Video Fuck poen. She closed me with thorns. Defibulation, cutting or tearing open of the scarred vaginal tissue, occurs partly when an infibulated woman has intercourse, and more extensively when she gives birth. In many cultures, a husband defibulates his bride after seeing she is a virgin. A woman may be defibulated with a sharp instrument if the husband is unable to penetrate, or if he permits defibulation by a midwife or relative. Reinfibulation, most commonly practiced in the Sudan, involves resuturing of the introitus after childbirth or widowhood. Some sexually active, unmarried women use reinfibulation to create a false appearance of virginity. Clinicians who work with culturally diverse patients often encounter patients who adhere to practices the clinicians do not understand. As members of noncircumcising cultures, our first response is to wonder why it is performed and perpetuated, and what values it signifies and sustains. We must curb a tendency to view behavior as rational or irrational from a rarified clinical perspective. Although there is no single cultural explanation for female circumcision, there are several general points to make when attempting to place it in an understandable context. First, until recently in the societies in which it is practiced, circumcision has been regarded as a necessary condition of life. The concept of female and male circumcision, as with many traditions, can be invisible until people are forced to examine it. Why does everyone say it is so terrible and that I should have problems from it? Reasons for deeply rooted traditions are often difficult to articulate, and therefore are easily discounted. Second, although many treat ritual female genital surgery as a singular process affecting millions of women, it is not a homogeneous practice. The types of surgeries and rationales behind them are as diverse as the people that practice them. Third, although efforts to elevate the role of women in African society will most likely include a discussion of ritual genital surgery, women may not consider it the central issue of inequality. Africans must debate the timing and framing of social change in Africa within the context of their families and neighborhoods. Finally, although these practices probably have their origins in patriarchal authority, women are responsible for their day-to-day perpetuation. Where we come from, it is the natural practice of our people. More than half of circumcised women may experience medical complications, but there are few accurate assessments of the frequency and severity of complications. There are no assessments of the complications of less severe forms, such as excision of the clitoral foreskin. Western providers will most likely encounter delayed complications of infibulation, 19 whose severity usually correlates with the extent of introital obstruction or scarring. Infibulated women can have keloids, adhesions, and dermoid cysts that obstruct the introitus, or further narrow the vaginal opening. An obstructive vulval skin diaphragm leads to a poor, slow urinary stream, dribbling, incontinence, and vaginal calculi, 20 and maintains a blind pouch around the urethra and vagina, resulting in frequent vaginal and urinary tract infections. A narrow introitus may prohibit a pelvic examination or obtaining a clean-catch urine sample. In this case, clinicians can diagnose urinary tract infections by the presence of symptoms, bacteriuria, and white blood cell counts bacteriuria alone may be present without infection owing to the mixture of urine and vaginal secretions in a narrow introitus. Vaginal candidiasis can be diagnosed using a cotton swab specimen, and patient symptoms can be treated with oral, rather than vaginal antifungal agents. If a woman has recurrent infections, or significant obstruction of urine or menstrual blood, clinicians can refer her to a gynecologist for defibulation or stretching of vaginal tissue. Women with obstructive sequelae may not agree to these procedures prior to first intercourse or marriage. Although such a choice may be frustrating for their clinicians, patients have the right to make this decision, and clinicians can be invaluable to these patients if they manage these problems medically, and gently present these options again on future occasions. Another set of complications may manifest when women become sexually active. This may lead to uterine and rectal prolapse, and vulval lymphedema. Circumcised women have an increased risk of infertility, in part due to chronic pelvic infections and obstruction to intercourse. There are no carefully controlled studies of the effect of female circumcision on sexual functioning. Most clinicians, however, assume a woman will have diminished sexual sensation if her clitoris is removed. Clinicians should note that some circumcised women report having satisfying sexual relations: Women may fear the pain of defibulation, or the possible discovery by their husbands that there was an accidental disruption of the circumcision, which could result in social humiliation and familial disgrace. Dyspareunia may occur from difficult penetration, scarring, and mental trauma. Anxiety and phobic behavior may occur, as some women psychologically re-experience the pain and trauma of the procedure and its complications. Obstetric complications are common. All rights reserved. Quizzes Polls. In an Emergency On-campus Resources. All About Alice! Go Ask Alice! Get Alice! In Your Box. A Comparative Law Perspective". International Law Research. Kouba, Leonard J. An Overview". African Studies Review. Mandara, Mairo Usman March International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Mackie, Gerry December American Sociological Review. Mackie, Gerry June A Harmless Practice? Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Murray, Jocelyn Journal of Religion in Africa. Nour, Nawal M. A Persisting Practice". Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Okeke, T. January Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. O'Rourke, Paul F. Rasheed, Salah M. Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M. Rodriguez, Sarah July American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Rushwan, Hamid September A tragedy for women's reproductive health". African Journal of Urology. Sheehan, E. August Isaac Baker Brown and his harmless operative procedure". Medical Anthropology Newsletter. Shell-Duncan, Bettina June Female Genital Cutting and the Politics of Intervention". American Anthropologist. Silverman, Eric K. Annual Review of Anthropology. November Gender and History. Toubia, Nadia F. Toubia, Nadia 15 September The New England Journal of Medicine. Wakabi, Wairagala 31 March Yasin, Berivan A. A cross-sectional study from Erbil city". BMC Public Health. Yoder, P. Stanley; Khan, Shane March Cappa, Claudia, et al. United Nations Children's Fund, July Classification of female genital mutilation , Geneva: World Health Organization, Diop, Nafissatou J. Eliminating Female genital mutilation: An Interagency Statement , Geneva: World Health Organization, January A Global Concern , New York: United Nations Children's Fund, February Female Genital Mutilation: A Teachers' Guide , Geneva: What Might the Future Hold? Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilations" , United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December Izett, Susan; Toubia, Nahid. An Overview , Geneva: Joint Evaluation. Accelerating Change , Annual report , New York: Mackie, Gerry ; LeJeune, John. XXX, Florence: Miller, Michael; Moneti, Francesca. Changing a harmful social convention: Moneti, Francesca; Parker, David. The Dynamics of Social Change , Florence: Female genital mutilation. Clitoridectomy Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Gishiri cutting Husband stitch Infibulation Keloid scars Pelvic inflammatory disease Rectovaginal fistula Vesicovaginal fistula. Female genital mutilation Activists against female genital mutilation. Violence against women. Abuse during childbirth Acid throwing Breast ironing Bride burning Bride buying Dating abuse Domestic violence outline management and pregnancy Dowry death Eve teasing Honor killing Female genital mutilation Gishiri cutting Infibulation Husband stitch Female infanticide Femicide Foot binding Force-feeding Forced abortion Forced marriage Forced pregnancy Forced prostitution Human trafficking Murder of pregnant women Raptio Sati Violence against prostitutes. Sexual assault Campus sexual assault Mass sexual assault Rape and pregnancy laws Types of rape by deception corrective date gang genocidal in war marital prison statutory Sexual slavery Sexual violence. Prosecution of gender-targeted crimes November 25th February 6th Serial rapist. In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death. Rutgers Univ. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of Medical Treatment. University of Rochester Press. Australian Feminist Studies 24 60 , April , February Retrieved Intersex Society of North America. The lingering intersex taboo". Montreal Gazette. June April Oophorectomy Salpingoophorectomy. Falloposcopy Salpingectomy Tubal ligation Essure Tubal reversal. Genitoplasty Hysterectomy Hysterotomy Pelvic exenteration Uterine artery embolization Transplantation. Hysteroscopy Vacuum aspiration. Endometrial biopsy Endometrial ablation. Uterine myomectomy. Vulvectomy Female genital mutilation Labiaplasty Clitoral hood reduction Vestibulectomy. Gynecologic ultrasonography Hysterosalpingography. However, it can help many problems caused by FGM. Deinfibulation should be carried out before getting pregnant, if possible. It can be done in pregnancy or labour if necessary, but ideally should be done before the last two months of pregnancy. The surgery involves making a cut incision to open the scar tissue over the entrance to the vagina. All women and girls have the right to control what happens to their bodies and the right to say no to FGM. UK website..

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